Kingdom Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi

All are eukaryotic; most are sessile (nonmotile)

Nearly all are multicellular


All are heterotrophic

      - parasitic

      - saprophytic

      - mutualistic symbionts

      - predators Image

Acquire nutrients by absorption


Structure - Image and Image

chitin in cell walls

filamentous bodies Fig 21.1

hypha (-ae)

mycelium (-a)

Reproduction - both sexual and asexual

spores Fig 21.4

Diversity of Fungi - Table 21.1 and Another Table - Classified by method of sexual reproduction. Phylogeny - Image

Chytrids - Image  Fig 21.9

Common mold (Image) or zygote fungi (Fig 21.6)

Sac or cup fungi - Image and Fig 21.7

Club fungi - Image, image and Fig 21.8

Imperfect Fungi - Fig 21.10

Yeasts - Fig 21.11

Ecological and Commercial Importance of Fungi

Decomposers - image

Lichens - Image, image and Image

Mycorrhizae (Image) - plants without and with mycorrhizae (Fig. 21.13 and Fig 21.14) - Fungi colonized land with plants.

Fungi as spoilers - molds (Image)

Pathogenic fungi affect plants (Image, image and Fig. 21.12) and animals (athlete's foot and ringworm)

Commercial uses of fungi, yeasts (Image), Penicillium (Image), other antibiotics

Kingdom Plantae


Possess cellulose-rich cell walls, store starch

Have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids


Evolved from a green alga: Charophyceans

The Green Invasion of the Land - these enabled a terrestrial existence rather than aquatic.

The Plant Life CycleAlternation of Generations Fig 22.3

Trends in the evolution of the plant life cycle - from flagellated sperm & spores, to pollen and seeds.

A phylogeny for plants. Fig 22.5. and image. Also see Table 22.1a and Table 22.1b

Mosses Image - Fig 22.6

Vascular Plants - General characteristics

Seedless Vascular Plants

     The Ferns Image life cycle Fig 22.10 and Fig 22.9

Seed Plants


         Angiosperms, flowering plants

Gymnosperms - Naked seeds

Angiosperms - flowering plants - seeds enclosed in ovary

Unique characters that made Angiosperms successful